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Herbert L.

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Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, the finance minister of the new African nation of Ghana, visited the United States on official business in October President Eisenhower later invited Gbedemah to breakfast at the White House to make amends. This incident was one of many involving dark-skinned diplomats and Jim Crow. Theodore W.

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Typed letter. During the s she worked as a community organizer in New York. She joined the NAACP staff in as a field secretary and served as director of branches from to Baker traveled throughout the South recruiting new members and registering voters. Ella Baker. Civil rights activist Chuck McDew b.

Thurgood Marshall served as chief counsel. The decision outraged many white citizens including Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus. He ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School on the pretext of preserving law and order, and the black students were repeatedly blocked by the guardsmen and angry white mobs. In the midst of the crisis, Daisy Bates wrote this letter. Cecil Layne. Little Rock Nine and Daisy Bates posed in living room. In August , A. On September 20, King was stabbed by a woman at a Harlem department store while autographing copies of his book, Stride Towards Freedom.

On the day of the march, a crowd of 10, massed at the Lincoln Memorial. A second youth march on April 18, , drew a crowd of 40, Board decision. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin. Other speakers included Martin Luther King, Jr. Mboya, later a government official after Kenya achieved independence, was assassinated in He had been a mentor to the father of President Barack Obama.

The original recording on the album Mingus Ah Um did not include lyrics due to objections by executives at Columbia Records.

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Charles Mingus. Mingus Ah Um. New York: Columbia, Within weeks, similar demonstrations by white and black students spread across the South. Many students were arrested. This pamphlet recounts the beginning of the student sit-in movement organized by NAACP youth councils. The efforts of Luper and the Youth Council succeeded in desegregating lunch counters at all the stores of a major drug store chain in four states and nearly all the restaurants in Oklahoma City. Despite beatings, arrests, jailing of protesters, and a bombing, six stores agreed in May to desegregate their lunch counters.

Diane Nash b.

Many believed this incident to be a turning point that led to the desegregation of six lunch counters in Nashville stores a few weeks later. Civil rights activist Marilyn Luper b.

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The title is derived from a quote by civil rights leader A. Masses of Negroes are marching onto the stage of history and demanding their freedom now! In the spring of , SNCC emerged as a major force in the civil rights movement through its involvement in the Freedom Rides and other nonviolent protests across the South.

This project put enormous pressure on President Johnson to move toward what would later become the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Statement of Purpose, The Civil Rights Act of strengthened the provisions of the act for court enforcement of voting rights and required preservation of voting records. It also included limited criminal penalty provisions related to bombing and obstruction of federal court orders, aimed particularly at school desegregation.

In this letter, Clarence Mitchell reports on his meeting with Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson to discuss the bill and the need for closer coordination on civil rights propositions between Johnson and Senate liberals. Clarence Mitchell to Roy Wilkins, March 2, John F. Kennedy — was born in Brookline, Massachusetts.

He graduated from Harvard College in He won 70 percent of the black vote in a tight election defeating opponent Richard Nixon. As president, Kennedy appointed an unprecedented number of blacks to government posts and believed that executive action and executive orders would be the only effective tools to advance civil rights. However, Kennedy argued the issue of civil rights could divide the Democratic Party and cost him the chance to pass other vital legislation. President John F.

Prints and Photographs Division , Library of Congress He was named labor secretary in In this capacity, he filed hundreds of lawsuits against labor unions and industries that refused integration or fair employment practices. He also used picket lines and mass demonstrations as weapons. Recognized as a major authority on race and labor, Hill testified frequently on Capitol Hill and served as a consultant for the United Nations and the State of Israel.

Herbert Hill.

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On March 6, President Kennedy issued Executive Order creating the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity to combat discrimination in government employment and in private employment stemming from government contracts. Washington, D. Government Printing Office, By the end of the plant had hired more than two-hundred black workers and promoted fifty-nine. Representative Patsy T.

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Mink D-HI — was the first woman of color to be elected to Congress. Mink, a third generation Japanese American was born and raised on Maui. She received her law degree from the University of Chicago Law School in Returning to Hawaii, Mink served in the State Senate when Hawaii became the fiftieth state and delivered a speech during the Democratic National Convention convincing the party to maintain its stance on civil rights. Mink was elected to Congress in and served a total of six consecutive terms.

Patsy T. Envelope, July 12, Virginia , which held that segregation in railway and bus terminal facilities serving interstate passengers was illegal. On May 14, in Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed and riders on another were assaulted. In this letter, Farmer asks A. Philip Randolph for help in raising money to support the Freedom Rides. James Farmer to A. Philip Randolph, April 4, They were met in Montgomery by a riotous mob. Among the injured was John Seigenthaler b. Throughout the summer more than Freedom Riders came by bus, plane, and train to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested on breach of peace and jailed in Parchman Prison.

This document chronicles events involving the Freedom Rides and corresponding actions taken by civil rights organizations and government agencies from May 21 to July 19, Manuscript Division , Library of Congress Journalist Moses Newson b. This Associated Press release includes a map and descriptive text not shown that illustrates the routes taken and the history behind the freedom rides. Background Map: Freedom Rides. C E Printed map.

Geography and Map Division , Library of Congress Whitney Young, Jr. The same year, he became director of industrial relations for the St. Paul Urban League and, in , moved to Omaha to serve as executive secretary. Under his leadership, Atlanta became one of the top social work schools in the South.

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In he became executive director of the National Urban League, and later he proposed a domestic recovery program to increase economic and educational opportunities for blacks. Whitney M. Young, Jr. Photograph, n. Robert F. Kennedy approved the most far-reaching civil rights plank ever adopted by the Democratic Party.

The division aggressively pursued the prosecution of voting rights violations in the South and initiated suits to advance school desegregation. Activist Courtland Cox b. Kennedy's office in an interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier b.

The mass demonstrations in Albany continued for six years. Current, December 14, It became the first major initiative of the civil rights movement to try to desegregate an entire city. Wyatt Tee Walker b. The group originated in Albany, Georgia, with the objective of educating communities about civil rights issues through performances and songs. The movement was closely connected to the church, and the use of both secular and spiritual songs served as the link that tied the two together for the cause of racial equality.

The group gave more than performances at college campuses, demonstrations, marches, and even jails. Singing provided a means for demonstrators to endure the pain and frustrations of assaults, dog attacks, fire hoses, and jail time. Joe Alper. Freedom Singers. Photograph, February She and others were arrested and sent out to the Lee County Stockade. Johnson recounts her experience in this statement.